"Numerical fluency develops when students communicate their understanding and construct and share their strategies."

—Patsy Kanter and Steven Leinwand

Ideas and strategies for rethinking numerical fluency instruction

Numerical fluency is about understanding, not memorization. It comes over time as students engage in active thinking and doing, not endless worksheets and timed tests.

Classroom instruction and materials, however, often don’t feel aligned with these realities.

In Developing Numerical Fluency, Patsy Kanter and Steven Leinwand take a fresh look at a commonly-asked question: “How do I teach number facts so my students know them fluently?” They apply their decades of experience teaching mathematics to rethinking effective fluency instruction.

In this sample, you'll find:

  • a look at what numerical fluency is and is not
  • an exploration of six processes that support the development of numerical fluency
  • ideas for getting started with these six processes in your classroom.